ARABIA THAT WAS
Muslim Moriscos converted to Christianity under duress, faced racial discrimination and systematic marginalization by mainstream Catholic Spaniards in Renaissance Spain. They were eventually exiled from their Iberian homeland, but their legacy remains.
Sultan Mohamed III led Morocco into an era of openness with respect to other nations of the world that exists to this day, especially manifest in the longstanding relationship between Morocco and the United States.
Baghdad, principal city of the Abbasid Caliphate, was the epicenter of knowledge and learning, a city unrivalled by any other in the Arab world where scholars from all faiths flocked by the thousands.
During the Dark Ages when Europe kept almost no records of any kind and made few remarkable achievements, Arabs and Muslims led the world in bridging that civilizational gap. Cordova, the Umayyad capital in Muslim Spain, became the vibrant heart of Europe where peace, science, and learning thrived.